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It is important that team members involved with CLD students have expertise relevant to cultural quarterly writing assessments for students linguistic differences. Most commonly, states recommend that an ELL teacher be part of the teams and that team members have training in CLD issues.
Team members also need to recognize the complex relationship between developing language proficiency in the second language, literacy development in both languages, and acquiring culturally bound knowledge e. Typically, personnel providing support for ELLs and students with IEPs are different and have separate personnel, policies, and funding sources.
These differences often result in separate screening and service-delivery systems. Fully integrated processes require professionals to work together and use their expertise to provide appropriate services to CLD students in a transdisciplinary manner.
When documents encourage communication and collaboration across disciplines and reference other documents e. Finally, it is important that parents of students who are CLD provide consent to participate and be provided with meaningful opportunities to be involved in the team processes, and be able to contribute important information about their children and family needs, values, and culture.
The following questions help guide teams regarding inclusion of knowledgeable participants, particularly parents of CLD students and including ELLs as age appropriate: Does the school data—informed problem-solving team have all stakeholders involved, including the general education and English as a second language ESL teachers?
Is there a cultural liaison that can link the school and community contexts and parental rights for the parents? Tier 1 Core Instruction ELLs without learning difficulties have been shown to demonstrate gains in phonemic awareness and phonics skills when provided systematic Tier 2 instruction in foundational literacy skills Vaughn et al.
However, because reading also involves age-expected development in vocabulary and grammar, ELLs need sufficient time to develop comparable levels of language proficiency beyond phonology and generally need support for years as part of general education.
The following characteristics apply to effective Tier 1 instruction for CLD students. The following questions can be used by teams to address common challenges involved with the implementation of Tier 1 core curriculum for CLD and ELL students, and for the assessment of universal screening and progress monitoring.
Is the core curriculum for ELL students reflective of academic standards specific to bilingual education and ESL programs e.
Is there evidence of differentiation in the core Tier 1 curriculum by classroom teacher and ESL teacher? Is the core instruction of high quality and delivered with fidelity?
Are the universal screening and progress-monitoring instruments that have been selected culturally responsive for the learners who will be taking them?
Was progress monitoring conducted in the language of intervention, when appropriate, and in English?
However, culturally responsive intervention practices must be validated for the targeted populations of students Klingner et al. When students do not appear to be responding to interventions at the same rate or to the same degree as expected, the extent to which the interventions have or have not been validated for CLD students should be taken into account when considering referring an ELL student for a special education evaluation or considering assessment results for eligibility.
The following questions can be used by teams to address common challenges involved with the implementation of Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions for CLD and ELL students. Does the intervention include explicit academic intervention in the area s of learning difficulty?
Is there evidence that interventions were implemented with high fidelity as intended i. Do Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions supplement core instruction not replace it? If students did not make sufficient progress with Tier 2 intervention, are the Tier 3 interventions delivered with higher intensity i.
Culturally Responsive Assessments and Interpretation To address concerns about the assessment and interpretation of achievement and progress results for CLD students, the professional literature reflects the following best practices: Assessment in native language and English language when necessary and where appropriate; Reliable instruments and procedures validated for intended use; Credit for correct responses in either language only when permitted by the standardization protocol; Use of authentic and curriculum-based measures and procedures; Measuring language proficiency and acculturative knowledge acquisition in both languages; Adaptation of measures for qualitative evaluation, 3 describing patterns of strengths and needs; and Determination of eligibility by a team that includes an expert in educating CLD students see Collier, ; A.
In addition, the following practices should be followed: A language survey is complete and data are available to the team for problem solving. Examples of information gathered during the language survey include the following: The teams, including the ESL teacher, meet regularly to analyze universal-screening and progress-monitoring data and make an instruction plan and tiered intervention for the target student not making progress.
The universal-screening and progress-monitoring instruments used are culturally responsive and developmentally appropriate for the learners i.Specifically, high schools provided details on the following aspects of their programs: school and teachers, students receiving peer instruction, peer instructors, assessments, and funding.
Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties Publication details, including instructions for authors and students for a variety of writing forms, including local, state, and national majority of state writing assessments are constructed in a similar manner.
The. Short description of Krashen's 5 main hypotheses on second language acquisition with comments in Portuguese. In third grade, children continue to extend and refine their reading and writing to suit varying purposes and audiences.
Third-graders can: Read fluently and enjoy reading. Sec.
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