Posted on December 17, by Scott Alexander I. Some old news I only just heard about: PETA is offering to pay the water bills for needy Detroit families if and only if those families agree to stop eating meat.
This hypothesis relies on the vast size and consistent physical laws of the observable universe. According to this argument, made by scientists such as Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking as well as well-regarded thinkers such as Winston Churchill  it would be improbable for life not to exist somewhere other than Earth.
Alternatively, life may have formed less frequently, then spread—by meteoroidsfor example—between habitable planets in a process called panspermia. Numerous discoveries in such zones since have generated numerical estimates of Earth-like planets —in terms of composition—of many billions.
One of the study authors, Sam Levin, notes "Like humans, we predict that they are made-up of a hierarchy of entities, which all cooperate to produce an alien. At each level of the organism there will be mechanisms in place to eliminate conflict, maintain cooperation, and keep the organism functioning.
We can even offer some examples of what these mechanisms will be.
It has been suggested that this capacity arises with the number of potential niches a planet contains, and that the complexity of life itself is reflected in the information density of planetary environments, which in turn can be computed from its niches.
Sufficient quantities of carbon and other elements, along with water, might enable the formation of living organisms on terrestrial planets with a chemical make-up and temperature range similar to that of Earth. It is also conceivable that there are forms of life whose solvent is a liquid hydrocarbonsuch as methaneethane or propane.
These six elements form the basic building blocks of virtually all life on Earth, whereas most of the remaining elements are found only in trace amounts.
The carbon atom has the unique ability to make four strong chemical bonds with other atoms, including other carbon atoms. These covalent bonds have a direction in space, so that carbon atoms can form the skeletons of complex 3-dimensional structures with definite architectures such as nucleic acids and proteins.
Carbon forms more compounds than all other elements combined. The great versatility of the carbon atom makes it the element most likely to provide the bases—even exotic ones—for the chemical composition of life on other planets.
Planetary habitabilityHabitability of natural satellitesand Exobiology Some bodies in the Solar System have the potential for an environment in which extraterrestrial life can exist, particularly those with possible subsurface oceans.
According to NASA's Astrobiology Strategy, "Life on other worlds is most likely to include microbes, and any complex living system elsewhere is likely to have arisen from and be founded upon microbial life.
Important insights on the limits of microbial life can be gleaned from studies of microbes on modern Earth, as well as their ubiquity and ancestral characteristics.
If extraterrestrial life was found on another body in the Solar Systemit could have originated from Earth just as life on Earth could have been seeded from elsewhere exogenesis.
The first known mention of the term 'panspermia' was in the writings of the 5th century BC Greek philosopher Anaxagoras. The Nobel prize winner Francis Crickalong with Leslie Orgel proposed that seeds of life may have been purposely spread by an advanced extraterrestrial civilization,  but considering an early " RNA world " Crick noted later that life may have originated on Earth.
Life on Venus In the early 20th century, Venus was often thought to be similar to Earth in terms of habitability, but observations since the beginning of the Space Age have revealed that Venus's surface is inhospitable to Earth-like life.
However, between an altitude of 50 and 65 kilometers, the pressure and temperature are Earth-like, and it has been speculated that thermoacidophilic extremophile microorganisms might exist in the acidic upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere.
Life on Mars Life on Mars has been long speculated.
Liquid water is widely thought to have existed on Mars in the past, and now can occasionally be found as low-volume liquid brines in shallow Martian soil. Nevertheless, present conditions on Mars' subsurface may support life.
Scientists have indications that heated subsurface oceans of liquid water may exist deep under the crusts of the three outer Galilean moons —Europa,    Ganymede     and Callisto.
Life on Europa Internal structure of Europa. The blue is a subsurface ocean. Such subsurface oceans could possibly harbor life.
Scientists found that ice shelves surrounding the lakes appear to be collapsing into them, thereby providing a mechanism through which life-forming chemicals created in sunlit areas on Europa's surface could be transferred to its interior.
Enceladus Enceladusa moon of Saturn, has some of the conditions for life, including geothermal activity and water vapor, as well as possible under-ice oceans heated by tidal effects.
The temperature and density of the plumes indicate a warmer, watery source beneath the surface. Life on Titan Titanthe largest moon of Saturnis the only known moon in the Solar System with a significant atmosphere.
Data from the Cassini—Huygens mission refuted the hypothesis of a global hydrocarbon ocean, but later demonstrated the existence of liquid hydrocarbon lakes in the polar regions—the first stable bodies of surface liquid discovered outside Earth.
Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe have proposed that microbial life might exist on comets and asteroids. This is in contrast with the oceans that may be inside larger icy satellites like Ganymede, Callisto, or Titan, where layers of high-pressure phases of ice are thought to underlie the liquid water layer.
Direct search Lifeforms produce a variety of biosignatures that may be detectable by telescopes. It is designed to assess the past and present habitability on Mars using a variety of scientific instruments. The rover landed on Mars at Gale Crater in August An alien could be a resident born or belonging to a different country, a foreigner, a person who has been excluded from something, or a creature from outer space (extraterrestrial).
For this argument, a creature from outer space would be the appropriate definition.
Many believe extraterrestrials do exist. Once we really get nanotech down, we can use it to make tech devices, clothing, food, a variety of bio-related products—artificial blood cells, tiny virus or cancer-cell . - Aliens ARE Out There.
Just about years ago people believed that the earth was still flat, 50 years ago people doubted the existence of an alien life, 5 min ago the people of earth believe that aliens existed.
Many individuals around the world have reportedly been contacted by extra terrestrial beings. The inescapable conclusion is that subjectivity, relativity and irrationalism are advocated [by Richard Rorty] not in order to let in all opinions, but precisely so as to exclude the opinions of people who believe in old authorities and objective truths.
Top Successful College Essays. Get into the college of your dreams! We hope these essays inspire you as you write your own personal statement. Just remember to . There is something powerfully raw and vivid about Hannah Arendt’s essay that came out in the midst of Europe’s darkness in the Second World War, before the worst horrors inflicted upon the Jews were fully unveiled.
Originally published in January as “We Refugees” in a small Jewish journal called Menorah (shut down in ), .
Are there such things as aliens, extraterrestrials, or UFOs? Does the Bible say whether or not there is life on other planets (extraterrestrial)? Do Aliens Exist? Essay Sample. Aliens are creatures from outer space, but do they do they exist? In this memo I will talk about this. Aliens are creatures from outer space, there is evidence that they live among us. They come from spaceships (some call “flying saucers”). It has been sited in various countries including the US. The existence of a mind virus. that plagues all of humanity – every man, woman and child – at first may seem like a far out concept, but it’s an idea that has been around a long time in a lot of different cultures.