Making the transition to the third era of natural resources managementby Nathan L. This is an ideal paper for probing the psychological anguish that accompanies the pragmatic shift in conservation paradigms forced by rapid climate change. The author has worked in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park for 35 years, and he wrote this essay as a contribution to the National Park Service Centennial in
In the remainder of this chapter, we will describe the techniques appropriate for assessing trustworthiness on each of these five criteria and the logic that motivates their use. However, beyond this description, we will evaluate these techniques based on our use of them in research stemming from the Consumer Behavior Odyssey, a field research project on consumption conducted in the summer of by a rotating team of two dozen academic researchers traveling across the U.
We will employ examples from our research primarily because it is the work which we know best and therefore, we are best able to provide details concerning its conduct which are not usually available in written realist presentations of research results Van Maanen It is not the intention of this chapter to present a "new orthodoxy" which suppresses variety and responsiveness in the design and implementation of interpretive research.
Above all, we support the idea that research design should be responsive to the nature of the research focus, and the techniques employed should address the questions presented above within the varieties of context participant-observation, ethnographic researchers choose to explore. Techniques for enhancing credibility during data collection include prolonged engagement, persistent observation, and triangulation across sources and methods.
Since the construction of an interpretation in ethnographic fieldwork begins during data collection Glaser and Straussthe techniques for enhancing credibility in interpretation formation also begin in the field.
These techniques include regular on-site team interaction, negative case analysis, triangulation across researchers, and debriefings by peers. Techniques for enhancing credibility that pertain most appropriately to the stage of preparing a presentation of the interpretation for readers include member checks and audits.
With the exception of audits which will be discussed in a later section, each of these will be discussed and evaluated in this section. Prolonged Engagement and Persistent Observation Conducting ethnographic research requires spending sufficient time in a context to develop an understanding of the phenomenon, group, or culture in broad perspective before focusing on a particular aspect or theme imbedded in that context.
Lincoln and Guba point to Freeman's objection to Mead's early focus on aspects of adolescence arising from the a priori theories that her advisor Franz Boas advocated without first attempting to understand the context of Samoan culture in which this behavior was embedded.
The problem was not the existence of a priori theory, either explicit or implicit, but rather the lack of attention to the key feature of naturalistic inquiry--namely, that it takes place in situ and is therefore subject to a much broader set of influences than apply in the laboratory.
That is, despite her lengthy stay in Samoa roughly one year in the initial fieldworkMead did not really conform to the spirit of prolonged engagement as a means to emergent interpretation.
But how prolonged is prolonged? Clearly the amount of time required varies. Cultural anthropologists conducting fieldwork for an initial project in an exotic culture with which they are unfamiliar often spend at least a year enmeshed in the culture.
Werrier and Schoepfle suggest that even after this time period, language skills are likely to be woefully inadequate to obtain a deep understanding of the concepts of the culture. Urban sociologists conducting fieldwork in their home culture may begin to focus on one aspect of social action more quickly since the context is already a part of their experiential portfolio.
Typically, rather than living at a research site Manningthey maintain frequent contact with social actors in the social world they are studying, and conduct their fieldwork through these interactions see for example, Snow and Anderson Similarly, researchers conducting fieldwork in a context with which they have previously become intimately familiar may more readily be able to conduct diagnostic research in a new, but similar setting.
However, in familiar contexts there is the danger of being too familiar with phenomena so that an appreciation of that which is taken- for-granted Wirth is more difficult to acquire.
Here the researcher must work to intentionally cultivate a more distanced and critical naivete, which also requires prolonged engagement and an ability to perceive things with "new eyes" and new ears Of course, more is needed than just spending a long time in a setting or social world.
Prolonged engagement is recommended partly in order to acquire sufficient observations to be able to assess the distortion which may exist in the data. Through persistent observation, the researcher acquires sufficient depth of understanding to assess the quality of the data.
This is a topic to which we will return in the section on integrity. The length of time appropriate to spend in a particular context is thus a function of the purpose of the research and the prior experience of the researchers.
Prototypical single site ethnographics in consumer research have been completed in the United States by Heisley, McGrath and Sherry at a farmers' market and by McGrath at a gift store. See also Sherry and McGrath--this volume.
The goal in each of these projects was constructing a description and interpretation of social action at a single site that was initially unfamiliar to the researchers.
In each case, participant-observation research was actively conducted over a time span of least two complete cycles of the phenomenon of interest agricultural seasons for the farmers' market project and the yearly occurrences of the gift occasions of Christmas and Hanukkah for the gift store project.
The shorter length of time spent at a swap meet for the Consumer Behavior Odyssey pilot project Belk, Sherry and Wallendorf completed one microcycle the four days of one week's trading cycle embedded in several longer Cycles governing seasonal changes and facility location.
Because the data were gathered primarily during one microcyc le, we could only employ perspectives of action informant explanations of their actions to the researcher in referring to patterns pertinent to longer cycles; however, we could employ both perspectives of action as well as perspectives in action observations of actual behaviors in interpreting patterns within this microcycle see Snow and Anderson, ; Gould, Walker, Crane, and Lidz In summary, one consideration in determining how prolonged the engagement must be is the length of the cycle over which the phenomenon of interest manifests itself.
Because the broader Consumer Behavior Odyssey sought to explore phenomena and themes in American consumption that were not site- or region-specific, movement across sites was employed. Neither the swap meet project nor the Consumer Behavior Odyssey project followed the approach taken by a ]one anthropologist studying an exotic culture, because neither project utilized a single researcher or focused on largely unfamiliar phenomena.
Instead, the time spent in fieldwork at a particular site emerged from a consideration of the overall goals of the project and the information obtained.
In all cases, reporting the amount of time spent at a site, the number of researchers, and the roles taken by the researchers Adler and Adler is important in establishing trustworthiness in the presentation of the interpretation. In advocating persistent observation, we are not referring to disguised observation, which Punchp.
Overt conduct of research allows the researcher to ask questions and probe issues which would seem inappropriate for a supposed non-researcher participant see Prus Disguised observation inhibits the participant-observer's ability to remain in the context for a prolonged period of time without calling his or her role into question.
This persistent observation may be needed to overcome potential impression management on the part of informants.If strategy making is seen as a continuum, then an organization, under some set of conditions can tilt towards that end of prescriptive school model (the other end being the learning/emergent model) and, in Mintzberg’s view prescriptive school type approach can be taken by organizations ‘coming out of a period of changing circumstances and.
Interpretive Consumer Research, Pages ASSESSING TRUSTWORTHINESS IN NATURALISTIC CONSUMER RESEARCH. Melanie Wallendorf, University of Arizona. Russell W. Belk, University of Utah [We would like to thank Laurel Hudson, Grant McCracken, Tommy O'Guinn, J.
Paul Peter, and Clint Sanders for their helpful comments on an earlier draft of this paper. The two approaches are Prescriptive approach and Emergent approach. The prescriptive approach view considers the process of strategic planning more formal.
It considers that the future can be predicted, and decisions can be made for the long term. From Deficiency to Strength: Shifting the Mindset about Education Inequality. To be published Journal of Social Issues Vol. 72, No. 4, , pp. – Download the PDF version. Yong Zhao.
University of Kansas. O ver the past decade, lean start-up methodology, which prizes early customer feedback, experimentation, and iteration—has emerged as the approach of choice. To . Number Sense: Rethinking Arithmetic Instruction for Students with Mathematical Disabilities.
By: Russell Gersten and David J. Chard. Abstract. We describe the concept of number sense, an analog as important to mathematics learning as phonemic awareness has been to the reading research field.